Efficacy of some Plant Materials for the Control of Cowpea Field Insect Pests at Bauchi, Nigeria

DUNGUM, S. M., DIKE, M.C., ADEBITAN, S.A. and OGIDI, J.A.

ABSTRACT: Studies were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa
University Bauchi during the 2001 and 2002 rainy seasons. Extracts of Anona reticulate (Pers.) seed; Anacardium occidentale (Linn.) nut and Azadirachia indica (A.) Juss.) seed were evaluated for their efficacy against field insect pests of cowpea. All treatments exhibited significant (P < 0.05) protection of cowpea pods and seeds from Megalurothrips sjostedii (Tryp.), Maruca vitrata (Fab.) and pod-sucking bugs damage compared with the untreated control. Differences among extracts were not significant but the extracts were less effective than larnbda-cyhalothrin (Karate(R) applied at 20 g a:i.lha. A. occidentale. A. reticulata and A. indica had 32.5%; 30.5%; 25.5% and 31.5%; 29.0%; 24.0% pod damage in 2001 and 2002 respectively as against 78% and 66.3% pod damage in the untreated control. Synthetic insecticide showed least pod damage (16% and 15%) in both years. Plant extracts gave 659 – 740 kg/ha and 733 – 808.3 kg/ha. higher grain yield respectively in both years while untreated plots gave 205 and 302 kg/ha. Yields obtained from Lambda-cyhalothrin treated plots were 1191.5 and 1271.5 kg/ha in both years. The plant extracts which are readily available and cheap within Bauchi could be used as alternative to synthetic insecticide to increase cowpea yield.

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