The Efficacy of Plant Oils as Green Pesticides in the Management of Field and Storage Pests.
ABSTRACT: Non-chemical materials that can be employed in the management of pests are referred to
as green pesticides and include plant extracts, hormones, toxins of organic origin, microbials, entomophagous nematodes, secondary metabolites from micro-organisms, pheromones and genes used to transform crops to express resistance to pests as well as
biodegradable synthetic and semi-synthetic products. Fixed plant oils extracted mechanically or chemically from the seeds of Neem, Castor oil, Moringa and Jatropha plants showed broad spectrum pesticidal activity against several insects and other members of the phylum Arthropoda. These fixed plant oils were thereafter transformed separately into emulsifiable concentrates by dissolving in organic solvents at the ratios of 95:5; 90:10; 80:20 and 75:25 oil/solvent respectively and thereafter, mixed with water at various concentrations to form their respective spray liquids. The three products namely the fixed plant oil, the emulsifiable concentrate and the spray liquid were pesticidal against a broad spectrum of insects and other arthropods and are characterized by ease of preparation, quick action, broad spectrum activity, absence of odour, long shelf life etc.
Key Words: Efficacy, Plant, Oils, Green, Pesticides