Effects of Five local Spices on the Mortality and Development of Dremestes maculatus Degeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) Larvae on Dried Fish.
JATAU A., MAJEED Q., BANDIYA H.M. AND IBRAHIM N.D.
Nig. J. Ent. 31: 103-107 (2015)
ABSTRACT. The efficacy of five local spices, namely – Hot pepper (Capsicum annum L.), Black pepper (Piper guinense Schum and Thonn), Sweet basil (Occimum canum Sim), African nut-meg (Monodora myristiea Dunal), and Ginger (Zingiber officianale Ross) with conventional insecticide Dichlorvos against the D. maculatus was studied under ambient laboratory conditions. The plant parts were pulverized into powders and applied at the rate of 1.0,2.0 and 3 .Ogper 25g of disinfected tilapia fish. The same amount offish was treated with 5ml of 1.0,2.0 and 3.0 percent solution of conventional insecticide (Dichlorvos) and air dried for 2hrs. Ten newly hatched 1st instar larvae (24hrs old) of D. maculatus were introduced into each powdered dried fish in separate beakers. The same numbers of larvae were also introduced to untreated dried fish to serve as control. Observations on the mortality and developments were recorded daily until the larvae pupated. Each of the treated smoked fish showed significant (P<0.05) effect on the larval mortality and development when compared with the control. The P guinense was as efficacious as Dichlorvos in killing all the larvae (100%) at all concentrations before pupation. O. canum gave the second best mortality results
(50.00,63.33 and 100%), while the other three spices resulted in less than 50% mortalities at all the rates of application. The spice powders were also observed to have extended the larval developmental period, where larval duration was extended from a mean 30.50days in the control to up to 53.83days when treated with O. canum. These observations suggested that the spices tested are effective in the control of D. maculatus.
Keywords: Development, Dermestes maculatus, Insecticide, Local Spices, Mortality.