Effectiveness of Selected Parapheromones for Mass Trapping of Mango Fruit Fly, Ceratitis cosyra Walker and Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Mango
NJE Vol. 36: 118-129, 2020
Ebi, C.,1 Asawalam, E. F.1 and Ogunfunmilayo A. O.2
1Department of Plant Health Management, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P.M.B. 7267 Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria
2Nigeria Agricultural Quarantine Service (NAQS), Post Entry Diagnostic and Surveillance Station Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Oyo State
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an important fruit crop in Nigeria. It is a source of essential vitamins and is also cultivated for its nutritional, medicinal and industrial uses. Fruit flies infest various commercial fruit crops and cause economic damage. Mass trapping and male annihilation technique (MAT) has been the most useful and common means of controlling fruit flies with special focus on Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) on mangoes. The study evaluated the effectiveness of four types of parapheromones namely, methyl eugenol (liquid and solid forms), cuelure, terpinyl acetate and trimedlure for mass trapping of fruit flies on Mango. Modified Lynfield traps containing the parapheromones were randomly set on the mango orchards in three replicates in Nigeria Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT) orchard, Okigwe, Imo state, Southeast Nigeria. This study was conducted during the mango fruiting period of 2019 season, when the density of fruit flies peaked. Effect of parapheromones on mean number of damaged dropped fruits was also evaluated. The mean population of B. dorsalis and Ceratitis cosyra was significantly higher (P>0.05) in liquid methyl eugenol traps when compared to other parapheromones. Bactrocera dorsalis recorded more than 90% of the fruit flies that were trapped especially in the first 3 weeks of trapping. In orchard I, Liquid methyl eugenol significantly (P<0.05) trapped highest number of B. dorsalis (270.20) in week I and similar trends were observed in orchard II. There was steady decline in damaged dropped mango fruits as the study progressed (Fig. 1 and 2). Use of liquid methyl eugenol was most effective in trapping B. dorsalis and C. cosyra, and it can be incorporated in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programmes for the control of fruit flies.
Keywords: Mangifera indica, Ceratitis cosyra, Bactrocera dorsalis, mass trapping, Parapheromones, Lynfield trap