Preliminary Evaluation of Onion Bulb and Tobacco Leaf Extracts for Insect Control and Yield of Cowpea in the Southern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria

NJE Vol. 39: 1-9, 2023


1Musa, A.K., 1Ojo, A., 1Lawal, M.T., 1Yusuf, S. Y., 2Oyerinde, A. A., Lawal, A. A., Babatunde, S. F. , Ake, J. and Abbas, Z.

1Department of Crop Protection, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
2Department of Crop Protection, University of Abuja, Nigeria

The study evaluated the effects of onion (Allium cepa) bulb and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaf extract on the insect pests and yield components of cowpea. The extracts were tested on number of the flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom, the pod-sucking bug, Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stal, the pod borer, Maruca vitrata (F.) and cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch. Also evaluated were the dry seed weight, 100-seed weight, pod length, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, pod load, pod damage and pod evaluation index. Field experiment was conducted in the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. Plots were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments included 10% (w/v) of each of onion bulb and tobacco leaf extracts, synthetic insecticide (Cypermethrin 1 L/ha) and untreated control. Results revealed that cowpea treated with the plant extracts had significantly (p<0.05) lower insect pest population than plants in untreated plots which suffered greater insect pest attack. However, plots treated with Cypermethrin produced significantly higher number of seeds per pod than other treatments. Nevertheless, tobacco leaf extract produced significantly (p<0.05) heavier 100-seed weight than other treatments including the control. It could be concluded that the plant extracts had potential to replace the synthetic insecticide for control of insect pests of cowpea, thus ensuring environmental safety.

Keywords: Cypermethrin, extracts, insects, onion, tobacco, yield.

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